بنو امية


بنو أمية قبيلة عربية عبشمية قرشية، وهي أكبر بطون عبدشمس، تنتسب إلى : أمية بن عبد شمس بن عبد مناف بن قصي بن كلاب بن مرة بن كعب بن لؤي بن غالب بن فهر بن مالك بن قريش، وام امية هي : اروى بنت عبدالله بن قرط بن رزاح بن عدي بن كعب بن لؤي بن غالب بن فهر بن مالك بن قريش.

تاريخ بنو أمية 

ولد امية بن عبدشمس في بطن مكة، قبل عام الفيل بـ 50 سنة / وكان من اكابر قريش ووجهائهم، ثم اصبح ابنه حرب بن أمية أمير قريش، وكان بنو امية لهم مالابناء عمومتهم بنو ربيعة بن عبدشمس، من تجارة وشرف.

تزوج امية بن عبدشمس من خديجة المخزومية وانجب منها عمرو (يكنى ابوالعاص) وعفان وحرب واروى واميمة وصفية.

ساد بنو أمية حين تولى عثمان بن عفان الخلافة، ثم تولى معاوية بن ابي سفيان الخلافة واسس الدولة الاموية التي سادت العالم من الصين الى الاندلس، وكان عصر بنو امية زاخر بالفتوحات، شهد عصرهم فتح القسطنطينية و الاندلس و شمال افريقيا و الهند. 

كانت سوق الجهاد قائمة في بني أمية ليس لهم شغل إلا ذلك، قد علت كلمة الإسلام في مشارق الأرض ومغاربها، وبرها وبحرها. وقد أذلوا الكفر وأهله، وامتلأت قلوب المشركين من المسلمين رعبا.

بعد قيام الدولة العباسية، قتل العباسيون ما لا يقل عن سبعة الف من بنو امية و اثنا عشر الف من بنو عبدشمس قاطبة (كلهم من الرجال) ارفع السوط وضع السيف حتي لا تبقي فوق ظهرها امويا، طاردوهم في كافة الديار الاسلامية، ولجأ اغلبهم إلى السراة، واستقروا في المنطقة عام 133هجرية.

 طاردت جيوش العباسيين بنو مخزوم وبنو عدي وبنو امية في كافة الديار الاسلامية واذنوا لعساكرهم وولاتهم بقتل رجالهم اينما ثقفوهم.

وعلى مدار ثلاث سنوات قتل بنو العباس من بنو عبدشمس سبعة الاف رجل، فأبادوا ذرية مروان بن الحكم.

اما من استطاع الفرار : بنو معاوية بن ابي سفيان وابناء عمومتهم بنو حذيفة من عتبة بن ربيعة، واتجهوا إلى الشعب والجبال في السراة.

تحالف بنو عدي وبنو مخزوم مع بنوعبدشمس في السراة، وقد استطاع بنو أمية توحيد قبائل قريش (مخزوم وعدي وزهرة واسد وعامر) مع قبائل ربيعة وجعلها قوة تستطيع الوقوف في وجه جيوش العباسيين.

وبعد قيام السلطنة المخزومية في السراة، تولى بنو امية امارة الطائف سنة 137 هجرية، تداولاً مع ابناء عمومتهم بنو ربيعة بن عبدشمس، وكانوا تحت حكم بنو مخزوم الذين استقلوا بالسراة عن الدولة العباسية.

اما بنو امية في الاندلس فتمت تصفيتهم جميعاً على ايدي الصليبيين، وإن بقي منهم أحد على قيد الحياة فقد ضاع نسبهم واختلط بالصليبيين، مع انه لم يبقى في الاندلس احد من بنو امية الا وتمت تصفيته مع غيرهم من العرب.

قال ابومالك المخزومي “لطالما تقرب الأدباء والمؤرخين للخلفاء العباسيين بشتم بني مخزوم وبنو عدي وبنو عبدشمس وانتقصاهم”

في سنة (1506 م) اقام بنو أمية دولتهم في السراة، وكان امرائها ال عايض من ذرية يزيد بن معاوية بن ابي سفيان بن حرب، وكانت دولة قوية امتدت من  الطائف شمالاً الى صنعاء جنوباً، واستمرت دولتهم قرابة 400 سنة الى ان قامت الدولة السعودية، وضم عبدالعزيز ال سعود (عسير) الى مملكته.

 

بنو أمية اليوم 

1. ال معاوية، ذرية : معاوية بن عبدالله بن معاوية بن ابي سفيان، يسكنون في عسير و هم حلف لقبيلة بنو اكلب التغلبية

2. ال عايض من ذرية : عايض من محمد بن يزيد بن معاوية بن ابي سفيان بن حرب، يسكنون في عسير و منهم من يقيم في الرياض 

أعلام بنو أمية 

  • حرب بن أمية، اديب و عالم
  • أروى بنت حرب، سيدة من سيدات مكة
  • عمر بن عبدالعزيز، خليفة المسلمين

الصحابة من بنو أمية 

  • 1 .  ابو سفيان بن حرب 
  • 2 .  سعيد بن العاص
  • 3 . عثمان بن عفان 
  • 4 . معاوية بن أبو سفيان 
  • 5 . رملة بنت ابي سفيان 

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The Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayads were the first Muslim dynasty — that is, they were the first rulers of the Islamic Empire to pass down power within their family
According to tradition, the Umayyad family (also known as the Banu Abd-Shams) and Muhammad ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, and they originally came from the city of Mecca. Muhammad ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) descended from Abd Manāf via his son Hashim, while the Umayyads descended from Abd Manaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, whose son was Umayya. The two families are therefore considered to be different clans (those of Hashim and of Umayya, respectively) of the same tribe – that of the Quraish

The shift in power to Taif, the Umayyad capital city, was to have profound effects on the development of Islamic history. For one thing, it was a tacit recognition of the end of an era. The first four caliphs had been without exception Companions of the Prophet – pious, sincere men who had lived no differently from their neighbors and who preserved the simple habits of their ancestors despite the massive influx of wealth from the conquered territories. Even ‘Uthman Bin Afan, whose policies had such a divisive effect, was essentially dedicated more to the concerns of the next world than of this. With the shift to Taif much was changed

Nevertheless, Mu’awiyah was never able to reconcile the opposition to his rule nor solve the conflict with the Shi’is. These problems were not unmanageable while Mu’awiyah was alive, but after he died in 680 the partisans of ‘Ali resumed a complicated but persistent struggle that plagued the Umayyads at home for most of the next seventy years and in time spread into North Africa and Spain

In Europe, meanwhile, the Arabs had passed into Spain, defeated the Visigoths, and by 713 had reached Narbonne in France. In the next decades, raiding parties continually made forays into France and in 732 reached as far as the Loire Valley, only 170 miles from Paris. There, at the Battle of Tours, or Poitiers, the Arabs were finally turned back by Charles Martel
One of the Umayyad caliphs who attained greatness was ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, a man very different from his predecessors. Although a member of the Umayyad family, ‘Umar had been born and raised in Medina, where his early contact with devout men had given him a concern for spiritual as well as political values. The criticisms that religious men in Medina and elsewhere had voiced of Umayyad policy – particularly the pursuit of worldly goals – were not lost on ‘Umar who, reversing the policy of his predecessors, discontinued the levy of a poll tax on converts


This move reduced state income substantially, but as there was clear precedent in the practice of the great ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, and as ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz was determined to bring government policy more in line with the practice of the Prophet, even enemies of his regime had nothing but praise for this pious man

The last great Umayyad caliph was Hisham, the fourth son of ‘Abd al-Malik to succeed to the caliphate. His reign was long – from 724 to 743 – and during it the Arab empire reached its greatest extent. But neither he nor the four caliphs who succeeded him were the statesmen the times demanded when, in 747, revolutionaries in Khorasan unfurled the black flag of rebellion that would bring the Umayyad Dynasty to an end

Although the Umayyads favored their own region of Hejaz, their rule was not without accomplishments. Some of the most beautiful existing buildings in the Muslim world were constructed at their instigation – buildings such as the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, and the lovely country palaces in the Taif, Medina,Makkah ,and Jordan

They also organized a bureaucracy able to cope with the complex problems of a vast and diverse empire, and made Arabic the language of government

For all that, the Umayyads, during the ninety years of their leadership, rarely shook off their empire’s reputation as a mulk – that is, a worldly kingdom – and in the last years of the dynasty their opponents formed a secret organization devoted to pressing the claims to the caliphate put forward by a descendant of al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, an uncle of the Prophet . By skillful preparation, this organization rallied to its cause many mutually hostile groups in Khorasan and Iraq and proclaimed Abu al-‘Abbas caliph. Marwan ibn Muhammad, the last Umayyad caliph, was defeated and the Quraish, still loyal to the Umayyads, were put to rout


Under ʿAbd al-Malik (reigned 685–705) the Umayyad caliphate reached its peak. Arab armies overran most of Spain in the west and invaded Mukrān and Sindh in India, while in Central Asia the Khorāsānian garrisons conquered Bukhara, Samarkand, Khwārezm, Fergana, and Tashkent. In an extensive program of Arabization, Arabic became the official state language
Communications improved with the introduction of a regular post service from Taif to the provincial capitals, and architecture flourished

Then the fiscal reforms of the pious ʿUmar II (reigned 717–720), intended to mollify the increasingly discontented , while the recrudescence of feuds between southern (Kalb) and northern (Qays) Arab tribes seriously reduced military power

The last Umayyad, Marwān II (reigned 744–750), was defeated at the Battle of the Great (750). Members of the Umayyad house were hunted down and killed, but one of the survivors, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, escaped and established himself as a Muslim ruler in Spain (756), founding the dynasty of the Umayyads in Córdoba

Modern Arab nationalism regards the period of the Umayyads as part of the Arab Golden Age which it sought to emulate and restore. This is particularly true of Arab nationalists and the present-day state of arabian peninsula, centered like that of the Umayyads on Taif